Mining appears to represent an important threat to conservation efforts in Madagascar. Expanding mining activities on the island have the potential to provide revenue for development and conservation efforts, but also pose a potential threat to conservation efforts on the island due to the spatial distribution and extent of mining concessions and the environmental impacts that mines often cause. By measuring the extent of overlap of permitted mining concessions with protected areas, potential protected areas, and mining-exclusion zones on the island, we assessed potential effects of mining on terrestrial conservation and evaluated the success of the governing institutions in limiting that impact. Permitted mining areas in 2006 overlapped with protected areas, potential protected areas, and mining - exclusion zones on the island. Mining concession areas overlapped with 33% of surface area planned for protection in 2005, 21% of surface area planned for protection in 2006, and 12% of the surface area from which mining was to be legally excluded. Total permitted area and area of overlap with conservation areas increased between 2005 and 2006 despite efforts in 2004 to limit such overlap. Changes in the mining permitting and regulation could improve prospects for limiting the impact of mining on biodiversity conservation on the island.