Fishermen in Manafiafy

Towards a more adaptive co-management of natural resources – increasing social-ecological resilience in southeast Madagascar

Gemma Holloway, Samm Short

Abstract


Situated on the southeast coast of Madagascar, Sainte Luce is a fishing village bordering some of the country’s last remaining littoral forests. Characterised by a combination of extreme poverty, the presence of highly - prized natural resources and feeble institutional structures, it is argued that Sainte Luce typifies contexts of social and ecological vulnerability found across Madagascar. The presence of the international mining giant, Rio Tinto, and the company’s role in managing a protected area bordering Sainte Luce, adds a complex dimension to this already highly vulnerable social - ecological context. Setting the case study within the context of recent natural resource management policies in Madagascar, the paper aims to highlight the need for innovative governance structures which match the complexity and dynamism of social - ecological systems such as that of Sainte Luce. We describe the approach taken by a local/international NGO partnership, Azafady, to build social and ecological resilience through a process of participatory and adaptive environmental action planning. The approach draws on concepts from adaptive co - management, which highlights the interdependence of human and natural systems and focuses on innovative institutional arrangements, social learning and cross-scale collaboration to manage the complexity and uncertainty of such systems. We examine the ways in which this approach has contributed to increasing social and ecological resilience in Sainte Luce and consider how progress made to date can be sustained and scaled up to wider geographical areas.

 

Résumé

Situé sur la côte sud - est de Madagascar, Sainte Luce est un village de pêcheurs bordé par quelques - unes des dernières forêts littorales du pays. Une extrême pauvreté des populations villageoises associée à des ressources naturelles prisées et des structures institutionnelles fragiles caractérisent Sainte Luce qui est ainsi analysé dans un contexte typique de vulnérabilité sociale et écologique, rencontré ailleurs sur l’ensemble de la Grande Île. La présence du géant international de l’exploitation minière, Rio Tinto, et le rôle de cette entreprise dans la gestion d’une aire protégée limitrophe de Sainte Luce ajoute une dimension complexe à une situation socio - écologique déjà vulnérable.

L’exemple de Sainte Luce abordé ici sert à souligner la nécessité de considérer des structures de gestion innovantes qui répondent à la complexité et au dynamisme des systèmes socio - écologiques sous de multiples pressions exogènes et endogènes. L’étude de cas est considéré dans le cadre de la récente politique environnementale de Madagascar, qui a pour objectif de promouvoir l‘implication des populations locales dans la gestion des ressources naturelles, en transmettant les droits de gestion aux groupes d’utilisateurs dénommés les COBA pour Communautés de base. Cependant, l’extension des accords de co - gestion incluant des tiers, comme des sociétés minières et des ONG internationales, a eu tendance à écarter les intérêts communautaires et, dans la plupart des cas, n’a pas réussi à promouvoir une appropriation des ressources par la population locale.

Nous décrivons ici une approche adoptée par l’ONG Azafady, un partenariat local et international, pour renforcer les résiliences sociale et écologique à Sainte Luce par un processus de planification d’actions environnementales, adaptives et participatives. La démarche s’appuie sur les concepts de co - gestion adaptative qui met en évidence l’interdépendance des systèmes humains et naturels. Elle se concentre également sur des dispositifs institutionnels novateurs, sur l’adaptation sociale ainsi qu’une collaboration multilatérale pour gérer la complexité et l’incertitude de ces systèmes. Afin d’établir et de maintenir l’appropriation de la communauté au cours du processus de gestion adaptative, l’approche a consisté à inverser les tendances historiques de mise en œuvre du sommet vers la base ou top-down d’un projet, en privilégiant une participation réelle et conséquente des populations locales. Les structures institutionnelles existantes ont été incorporées dans le nouveau modèle, tandis que de nouvelles structures ont servi à créer un cadre institutionnel plus résilient et plus adaptatif.

Nous examinons comment cette approche, avec sa base conceptuelle de co - gestion adaptative, a contribué à renforcer la résilience sociale et écologique de Sainte Luce. En tenant compte des difficultés rencontrées, de la nécessité de maintenir les progrès réalisés et de la possibilité de reproduire ce concept à une échelle géographique plus vaste, nous montrons comment l’expérience de Sainte Luce peut servir à d’autres organisations qui essayent de promouvoir la gestion environnementale durable avec des paramètres dynamiques et complexes ailleurs à Madagascar, voire au - delà.

 


Keywords


Adaptive co-management, social-ecological resilience, environmental governance, participatory planning, mining

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adger, W.N. 2000. Social and ecological resilience: Are they related? Progress in Human Geography 24, 3: 347–364. (doi:10.1191/030913200701540465)

Adger, W. N. 2006. Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change 16, 3: 268–281. (doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.006)

Agrawal, A. and Ribot, J. 1999. Accountability in decentralisation: A framework with South Asian and West African cases. Journal of Developing Areas 33, 4: 473–502.

ALT (Andrew Lees Trust) and Panos. 2009. Voices of Change: Oral Testimony of the Antanosy People. Andrew Lees Trust and Panos London. Available at

Andrianirina, R. R., Ramarojohn, L., Burnod, P. and Teyssier, A. 2011. After Daewoo? Current Status and Perspective of Large Land Scale Acquisitions in Madagascar. Observatoire du Foncier à Madagascar, CIRAD, International Land Coalition, Rome. Available at

Antona, M., Motte Biénabe, E., Salles, J. M., Péchard, G., Aubert, S. and Ratsimbarison, R. 2004. Rights transfers in Madagascar bio¬diversity policies: Achievements and significance. Environment and Development Economics 9, 6: 825–847. (doi:10.1017/S1355770X04001640)

Armitage, D., Plummer, R., Berkes, F., Arthur, R. I., Charles, A. T., et al. 2009. Adaptive co-management for social-ecological complexity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7, 2: 95–102. (doi:10.1890/070089)

Bezanson, K., Gérin, J., Jolly, A. and Rajaobelina, L. 2012. Report of the International Advisory Panel, 2012 Mission, 12–24 September 2012. Available at

Carpenter, S. R., Walker, B. H., Anderies, J. M. and Abel, N. 2001. From metaphor to measurement: resilience of what to what? Ecosystems 4, 8: 765–781. (doi:10.1007/s10021-001-0045-9)

CIFOR (Center for International Forestry Research). 2008. Info brief No. 13. Available at

Cinner, J. E., Daw, T. M., McClanahan, T. R., Muthiga, N., Abunge, C., et al. 2012. Transitions toward co-management: The process of marine resource management devolution in three east African countries. Global Environmental Change 22, 3: 651–658. (doi:10.1016/j.gloenv¬cha.2012.03.002)

Colchester, M. 1994. Sustaining the forests: The community-based approach in South and South-East Asia. Development and Change 25, 1: 69–100. (doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.1994.tb00510.x)

Colfer, C. J. P. 2005. The complex forest: Communities, uncertainty, and adaptive collaborative management. Resources for the Future and Center for International Forestry Research, Washington, D.C.

Conley, A. and Moote, M. A. 2003. Evaluating collaborative natural resource management. Society and Natural Resources 16, 5: 371–386. (doi:10.1080/089419 20390190032)

Consiglio, T., Schatz, G. E., McPherson, G., Lowry II, P.P., Rabenantoandro, J., Rogers, R. R. and Rabehevitra, D. 2006. Deforestation and plant diversity of Madagascar’s littoral forests. Conservation Biology 20, 6: 1799–1803 (doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00562.x)

Corson, C. 2011. Territorialization, enclosure and neoliberalism: Non-state influence in struggles over Madagascar’s forests. Journal of Peasant Studies 38, 4: 703–726. (doi:10.1080/03066150.2011.607696)

Cripps, G. and Harris, A. 2009. Community Creation and Management of the Velondriake Marine Protected Area. Blue Ventures Conservation, London. Available at:

Diaw, M. C., Aseh, T. and Prabhu, R. (eds.) 2009. In Search of Common Ground: Adaptive Collaborative Management in Cameroon. Center for International Forestry Research. Bogor, Indonesia.

Evers, S. 2005. Trumping the ancestors: The challenges of implementing a land registration system in Madagascar. In: Competing Jurisdictions –Settling Land Claims in Africa. S. Evers, M. Spierenburg and H. Wels (eds.) pp 223–242. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Evers, S. J. T. M., Campbell, G. and Lambek, M. 2013. Land competition and human-environment relations in Madagascar. In: Contest for Land Madagascar –Environment, Ancestors and Development. S. J. T. M Evers, G. Campbell and M. Lambek (eds.) pp 1–20. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Folke, C. 2006. Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change 16, 3: 253–267. (doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.04.002)

Folke, C., Carpenter, S, Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L, Holling, C. S. and Walker, B. 2002. Resilience and sustainable development: Building adap¬tive capacity in a world of transformations. AMBIO 31, 5: 437–440. (doi:10.1579/0044-7447-31.5.437)

Fritz-Vietta, N., Rottger, C. and Stoll-Kleemann, S. 2009. Community-based management in two biospheres in Madagascar – distinctions and similarities: What can be learned from different approaches? Madagascar Conservation & Development 4, 2: 86–97. (doi:10.4314/mcd.v4i2.48648)

Ganzhorn, J. U., Lowry II, P. P., Schatz, G. E. and Sommer, S. 2001. The biodiversity of Madagascar: One of the world’s hottest hotspots on its way out. Oryx 35, 4: 346–348. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-3008.2001.00201.x)

Grumbine, E. 1994. What is ecosystem management? Conservation Biology 8, 1: 27–38. (doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1994.08010027.x)

Hannah, L., Dave, R., Lowry II, P. P., Andelman, S., Andrianarisata, M., et al. 2008. Climate change adaptation for conservation in Madagascar. Biology Letters 4, 5: 590–594 (doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0270)

Hanson, P. 2007. Governmentality, language ideology and the production of needs in Malagasy conservation and development. Cultural Anthropology 22, 2: 244–284. (doi:10.1525/can.2007.22.2.244)

Hanson, P. W. 2012. Toward a more transformative participation in the conservation of Madagascar’s natural resources. Geoforum 43, 6: 1182–1193. (doi:10.1016/j.geoforum. 2012.03.005)

Harris, A. R. 2011. Out of sight but no longer out of mind: A climate of change for marine conservation in Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation & Development 6, 1: 7–14. (doi;10.4314/mcd.v6i1.68058)

Hockley, N. J. and Andriamarovololona, M. M. 2007. The economics of community forest management in Madagascar: Is there a free lunch? USAID, Antananarivo, Madagascar. Available at

Hogg, F., Funnel, S., Shrum, M., Ellis, E. R. and Tsimijaly, L.H. 2013. The useful palms of Sainte Luce: Implications for local resource availability and conservation. Palms 57, 3: 133–144.

Holling, C. S. 1986. The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: Local surprise and global change. In: Sustainable development of the biosphere.W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn (eds.) pp 292–317. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Holling, C.S. 2001. Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological and social systems. Ecosystems 4, 5: 390–405. (doi:10.1007/s10021-001-0101-5)

Horning, N. R. 2008. Strong support for weak performance: Donor competition in Madagascar. African Affairs 107, 428: 405–431. (doi:10.1093/afraf/adn036)

Horning, N. R. 2012. Debunking three myths about Madagascar’s deforestation. Madagascar Conservation & Development 7, 3:116–119. (doi:10.4314/mcd.v7i3.3)

Huitema, D., Mostert, E. Egas, W., Moellenkamp, S., Pahl-Wostl, C. and Yalcin, R. 2009. Adaptive water governance: Assessing the institutional pre¬scriptions of adaptive (co-) management from a governance perspective and defining a research agenda. Ecology and Society 14, 1: 26. Available at

Ingram, J. C., Whittaker, R. J., Dawson, T. P. 2005. Tree structure and diversity in human-impacted littoral forests, Madagascar. Environmental Management 35, 6: 779–798. (doi:10.1007/s00267-004-0079-9)

IUCN. 2013. The IUCN Red List. Available at

Kasperson, J. X., Kasperson, R. E. and Turner, B. L. 1995. Regions at Risk: Comparisons of Threatened Environments. United Nations University Press, New York.

Kraemer, A. 2012. Whose forests, whose voices? Mining and community-based nature conservation in southeast Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation & Development 7, 2S: 87–96. (doi:10.4314/mcd.v7i2S.5)

Kull, C. A. 2002. Madagascar aflame: Landscape burning as peasant protest, resistance, or a resource management tool? Political Geography 21, 7: 927–953. (doi:10.1016/S0962-6298(02)00054-9)

Lowry II, P. P., Randriatafika, F.and Rabenantoandro, J. 2008. Conservation status of vascular plant species from the QMM/Rio Tinto mining area at Mandena, Tolagnaro (Fort Dauphin) region, southeast Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation & Development 3, 1: 55–63. (doi:10.4314/mcd.v3i1.44137)

Marcus, R. R. and Kull, C. 1999. Setting the stage: The politics of Madagascar’s environmental efforts. African Studies Quarterly 3, 2: 1–8.

Middleton, K. (ed.) 1999. Ancestors, Power and History in Madagascar. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., Da Fonseca, G. A. B. and Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858. (doi:10.1038/35002501)

Nadasdy, P. 2007. Adaptive co-management and the gospel of resilience. In: Adaptive Co-management: Collaboration, Learning and Multi-level Governance. D. Armitage, F. Berkes and N. Doubleday (eds.) pp 208–227. UBC Press, British Colombia.

Norris, S. 2006. Madagascar defiant. BioScience 56, 12:960–965. (doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[960:MD]2.0.CO;2)

Olegario, R., Harvey, W. and Mueller, M. 2012. QMM/Rio Tinto in Madagascar, Case A: Protecting the island’s biodiversity, Oxford University Centre for Corporate Reputation, Oxford University, Oxford.

Olsson, P., Folke, C. and Berkes, F. 2004. Adaptive co-management for building resilience in social-ecological systems. Environmental Management 34, 1: 75–90. (doi:10.1007/s00267-003-0101-7)

Plummer, R. 2009. The adaptive co-management process: An initial synthesis of representative models and influential variables. Ecology and Society 14, 2: 24. Available at

Plummer, R. and Armitage, D. R. 2009. Charting the new territory of adaptive co-management: A Delphi study. Ecology and Society 12, 2: 10. Available at

Plummer, R. and Fitzgibbon, J. 2004. Co-management of natural resources: A proposed framework. Environmental Management 33, 6: 876–885. (doi:10.1007/s00267-003-3038-y)

Pollini, J. and Lassoie, J. P. 2011. Trapping farmer communities within global environmental regimes: The case of the GELOSE legislation in Madagascar. Society and Natural Resources 24, 8: 814–830. (doi:10.1080/08941921003782218)

Pretty, J. and Ward, H. 2001. Social capital and the environment. World Development 29, 2: 209–227. (doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(00)00098-X)

Raik, D. 2007. Forest management in Madagascar: An historical overview. Madagascar Conservation & Development 2, 1: 5–10. (doi:10.4314/mcd.v2i1.44123)

Raik, D. and Decker, D. 2007. A multi-sector framework for assessing com¬munity-based forest management: Lessons from Madagascar. Ecology and Society 12, 1: 14. Available at

Ramasinoro, A. A. 2010. Etude d’impact environnemental relative à la création de la nouvelle aire protégée d’Ambatoatsinanana. Ministère de l’Environnement et des Forêts. Government of Madagascar.

Ribot, J. C. 2002. African Decentralization: Local Actors, Powers and Accountability. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, Switzerland.

Rio Tinto. 2008. Rio Tinto and Biodiversity, Achieving Results on the Ground. Rio Tinto, London. Available at

Rio Tinto. 2013.About QMM. accessed 27 August 2013.

Sabatini, G., Salley, S. Ramanamanjato, J.-B. 2007. A review of the spiny lobster fishery in the Tolagnaro (Fort-Dauphin) Region. In: Biodiversity, Ecology and Conservation of Littoral Ecosystems in Southeastern Madagascar, Tolagnaro (Fort Dauphin). J. U. Ganzhorn, S. M. Goodman and M. Vincelette (eds.) pp 299–308. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Sandy, C. 2006. Real and imagined landscapes: Land use and conservation in the Menabe. Conservation and Society. 4, 2: 304–324.

Seagle, C. 2012. Inverting the impacts: Mining, conservation and sustain¬ability claims near the Rio Tinto/QMM ilmenite mine in southeast Madagascar. Journal of Peasant Studies 39, 2: 447–477. (doi:10.1080/03066150.2012.671769)

Smith, S. M., Shepherd, D. D. and Dorward, P. T. 2012. Perspectives on com¬munity representation within the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative: Experiences from south-east Madagascar. Resources Policy 37, 2: 241–250. (doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2011.01.001)

Temple, H. J., Anstee, S., Ekstrom, J., Pilgrim, J.D., Rabenantoandro, J., Ramanamanjato, J. B., Randriatafika, F. and Vincelette, M. 2012. Forecasting the path towards a Net Positive Impact on biodiversity for Rio Tinto QMM.IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Available at

UNDP. 2013. Human Development Report 2013. The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. United Nations Development Program, Geneva. Available at

Vincelette, M., Dean, L. and Ganzhorn, J. U. 2007. The QMM/Rio Tinto project history in Tolagnaro and its social and environmental concepts. In: Biodiversity, Ecology, and Conservation of Littoral Ecosystems in Southeastern Madagascar, Tolagnaro (Fort Dauphin). J.U. Ganzhorn, S.M. Goodman and M. Vincelette (eds.) pp 1–8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

von Heland, J. and Folke, C. 2014. A social contract with the ancestors – culture and ecosystem services in southern Madagascar. Global Environmental Change 24: 251–264. (doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.11.003)

Walker, B. H., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R. and Kinzig, A. P. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society 9, 2: 5. Available at

Wollenberg, E., Edmunds, D. and Buck, L. 2000. Using scenarios to make decisions about the future. Landscape and Urban Planning 47, 1–2: 65–77. (doi:10.1016/S0169-2046(99)00071-7)

World Bank. 2013. Measuring the Impact of the Political Crisis.accessed 20 August 13.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v9i1.7

Madag. conserv. dev.
ISSN: 1662-2510