pirogue in Antsiranana Bay

Understanding local differences in small-scale fisheries: a comparison of two fishing settlements in Antsiranana Bay, northern Madagascar

Andrzej J. Narozanski, Elise M.S. Belle, Mark D. Steer

Abstract


The small-scale fishery in Antsiranana Bay, northern Madagascar, constitutes a very active industry with fishers using multiple methods based on traditional techniques. In this first study of the fishing activities in Antsiranana Bay, two villages were surveyed, both through direct observation and by means of interviews with local fishers. Antsisikala is a small zebu-farming village whose inhabitants supplement their income through small-scale fishing, whereas Ramena is primarily a fishing village that also caters for tourism. Our results show that fishers from both villages target multiple species of reef associated fish as well as invertebrates, and use a variety of fishing gears including hook and line, gill nets, beach seine nets, spearguns and traps. There were significant differences in the types of fishing gear preferentially used and catch sizes between the two villages, as well as in opinions regarding possible measures to utilise the marine resources more sustainably. We therefore stress the importance of understanding the local differences between small-scale fisheries and their impacts on the reef in order to design more effective management strategies.

 

 

RÉSUMÉ

La pêche artisanale dans la baie d'Antsiranana, au nord de Madagascar est une activité répandue parmi les pêcheurs qui utilisent des moyens diversifiés généralement basés sur les techniques traditionnelles. D’ordinaire, on considère que la pêche artisanale a un impact négligeable sur l'environnement par rapport aux pêcheries commerciales à grande échelle. Dans cette première analyse des activités de pêche artisanale dans la baie d'Antsiranana, deux villages situés de part et d’autre de la baie ont fait l’objet d’études, à la fois par le biais d'observations directes et au moyen de questionnaires auprès des pêcheurs locaux. Antsisikala est un petit village situé à l’ouest de la baie qui dépend principalement de l'élevage de zébus mais qui augmente son revenu grâce à la pêche. Le village de Ramena est en revanche situé à l'est de la baie et est essentiellement tourné vers la pêche complétée par quelques activités touristiques. Ces villages ont été choisis pour illustrer la variabilité des niveaux de pression sur les ressources marines et côtières causés par la pêche artisanale. Nos résultats montrent des similarités et des différences entre les deux villages, car si les pêcheurs des deux villages ciblent des poissons de plusieurs familles liés au récif ainsi que diverses espèces d’invertébrés et qu’ils sont conscients d'une baisse de production de la pêche au cours des dernières années, notre étude montre cependant des différences significatives dans les types de matériel de pêche utilisés et dans l’intensité de la pêche entre les deux villages. De plus, les pêcheurs des deux villages ont des avis divergents lorsqu’ils formulent des solutions destinées à permettre l’exploitation pérenne des ressources marines. Les pêcheurs de Ramena utilisent principalement des sennes de plage, tandis que ceux d'Antsisikala emploient surtout une combinaison de méthodes en utilisant aussi bien les lignes que les filets maillants. Le type de matériel utilisé à Ramena conduit à une fréquence de pêche bien plus importante lorsque les catégories de poids plus élevés sont recherchées. Dans la mesure où la population locale continue de croître, les pressions associées à la pêche dans la baie d'Antsiranana continueront d’augmenter, à moins que des mesures efficaces ne soient mises en place. Il est donc essentiel d’établir rapidement un plan de gestion en concertation avec les populations locales, afin d’assurer la longévité de la pêcherie. Pour être efficace, ce plan de gestion devra veiller à considérer les particularités propres des différents types de pêche.


Keywords


small-scale fishery; marine resource management; coral reefs

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v6i2.5

Madag. conserv. dev.
ISSN: 1662-2510